1. Abstract

Abstract is the systemized brief presentation of the scientific study revealing its main contents, special features and advantages. Abstracts provide efficient attraction of the interested reader, subject systematization, statistical selection, citation and scientometric indexing of the research.

To be published the report must include grammatically correct, readable abstract in English.

Informational specificity of distribution of scientific data is in the fact that abstract and title of the scientific report are first things perceived by experts and readers. Besides, scientifically and grammatically correct abstract is also the obligatory condition of inclusion of your publications to scientometric databases.

In this regard we would like to emphasize the following: title of materials, abstract and keywords must be obligatorily presented in grammatically correct English in the most understandable form for the reader. Use of automatic text engines is prohibited. Materials not meeting our requirements will not be published.

Materials submitted for publication in the journal may contain abstracts of two kinds:

1) standard abstract, not exceeding 5-7 sentences, must be an integral part of the report in English;

2) extended abstract, not exceeding 10 sentences and limited by one page of typed text, must be an integral part of the report presented not in English (in any widespread (acknowledged as widespread) language of international communication or other language understandable by the widest range of persons.


Rules of presentation of the abstract, example


The abstract must reveal main sections of the article. It must be designed with observance of international standards and include the following main points:

Actuality. From the very beginning it is necessary to show the importance of the problem under study or the offered project under study.

Problem statement. After presentation of actuality it is necessary to describe the problem the scientific study is devoted to.

Ways of solving the problem. In this section of the abstract the author must list all concrete steps directed to the solution of the existing problem. In qualitative studies (not including the description of the experiment and analysis of its results) it may be the listing of theoretical matters under study. In quantitative studies (those including statistical data of the experiment) methods of experimental work performed and indexes under study are listed in this section of the abstract.

Results and conclusions. This section of the abstract includes quantitative and qualitative results of the research. It is also necessary to emphasize the sphere of implementation of results of the research, the extent of widening of existing ideas concerning matters under study, new methods of solution of existing problems offered in the report. Conclusions may be supplemented by recommendations, assessments, offers, theories described in the article.

Every section is limited by 1-2 sentences.


While writing the abstract authors should also bear in mind the following:

  • Parts of text of the report and its title can not be duplicated in the abstract (the author can not take sentences from the report and use them in the abstract). The abstract must not include numbers, tables, intra-textual references. The author should not write the word "Abstract" before the text; the text is formatted in a way similar to the article but marked as italic.
  • The abstract must include significant facts from the report; materials not mentioned in the article itself should not be included in the abstract.
  • In the abstract the author should use syntactic constructions inherent to the language of scientific and technical documents, but avoid complex grammatical constructions. The abstract must be short and clear without any unnecessary introductory words or general formulations.


The abstract sample

The paper contains results of comparative research on emotional intelligence as a probable factor of vocational preferences. The author strongly advocates that emotional intelligence is an important component of professional preparation and competences in pedagogical professions.


2. Keywords

Keywords of the report are concepts characterizing main contents of the report and capable to represent the report by relevance (semantic correspondence to the search inquiry).

The list of keywords is the obligatory part of the material accepted for publication in the journal


Rules of presentation of keywords, example

The main criteria for selection of keywords is the potential value of words for expression of contents of the document (or convenience in searching for the document in electronic bases)

Keywords must be reduced to the canonic form:

  • single words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs);
  • nominal phrases;
  • lexically significant components of compound words;
  • reductions of words and phrases.

Total number of keywords must not exceed 10. Keywords must reflect the branch of science the article belongs to, subject, name and the object of the research.

While determining keywords the author should:

  • use only the clearest possible and unequivocal terms;
  • do not use words with several meanings without determination of the exact meaning;
  • do not use the same word in two different meanings or different words meaning the same thing.


Keywords sample

Keywords: emotional intelligence, helping professions, teacher competences, socio-emotional competences, vocational preferences.


3. Innovative summary

Innovative summary is a brief presentation of the main idea of the report. It is characterized by novelty and represents the actual contribution of the author to science.

Innovative summary is not the obligatory element of reports submitted for publication in the journal.

Innovative summary is intended for fixation and mass distribution of exclusive elements of original ideas of authors through informational channels. Innovative summaries of reports submitted for publication are distributed through own informational resources and accounts in social networks of the IASHE and its official partners.


Requirements to innovative summaries: 

  1. The text must contain brief information about the innovativeness of ideas, presented in the article.
  2. The size of the summary: not more then 140 symbols (with spaces and punctuation) in one informational block, including the last name and initials of the author. Innovational summary of one report (article) must contain from 1 to 3 informational blocks.
  3. The summary may be distributed in English or in the language of the article published (decided by the author).
  4. Informational summary conclusion and distribution in 3 informational blocks is carried out by authors independently.


Example of the innovational summary in 1 informational block:

Popov S. The religious world-view of the society, adjusting ethical standards in every era, influences the development of the law system (136 symbols)


Example of the innovational summary in 3 informational blocks:

Vashuk N. (1) Sporting violation, as juridical fact, is deprived of the status of legal violation by social consent with competition rules  (138 symbols)

Vashuk N. (2) In case of obvious violation of rules and acceptable competition hardness criteria  – this is an infringement of the law (134 symbols)

Vashuk N. (3) Criminalization comes on the basis of social consent violation on the acceptable limits of violence and existence of legal ban  (137 symbols)